external image 44732341.pngPro-social Interaction, Leadership and Social Justice

Prosocial Behaviour
Prosocial behavior is voluntary actions that are intended to help another individual or group of individuals.
Prosocial behaviours range from opening a door to donating blood in times of emergency. They are altruistic, thoughtful, and unselfish acts done to promote or help others without expectation of reward from external sources. One of the driving forces behind prosocial behaviours is a belief in the need to co-operate. Prosocial behaviours develop from both cooperation and competition. Pro-social” is the opposite of anti-social. Anti-social actions result in others feeling distant while prosocial actions are relationship skills that invite others to feel positive and seek interaction. Sharing and taking turns is something that adults can observe by watching how children act. In order for children to share, take turns, negotiate and express kindness, they must first develop empathy and perspective taking (being able to see another’s point of view), “from the second year of life, children’s ability to understand the viewpoints of others improves.”
Putting your own safety in danger makes it less likely that you will survive to pass on your own genes. The idea of kin selection suggests that helping members of your own genetic family makes it more likely that your kin will survive and pass on genes to the future generations.

Prosocial individuals frequently exhibit the following attitudes, characteristics, or skills:
• a belief in the need for co-operation
• a belief in the concept of equity
• leadership by example
• good conflict resolution skills

Each of these foundational elements of prosocial behaviour is important.

It has been proven that between individualist and collectivist cultures, collectivists are more likely to be prosocial, simply because they are taught to work together more and depend on each, where as individualist cultures are more competitive.

Prosocial behavior varies with context as much as between people. Men will tend to be chivalrous for short periods, whilst women will work quietly for longer periods. People who are in a good mood are more likely to do good, as are people who are feeling guilty. People in
small towns are more likely to help than those squashed together in cities.


What influences Pro Social Acts?
—“Born Saints” – Pro social behaviour as an inborn tendencyaspects of personality are genetically determined, and personality is related to pro social behaviour
—“It’s what’s expected” – Pro social behaviour and social norms
universal norm, requires that people help, and not harm, those who have helped them in the past
“A good upbringing” – Pro social behaviour and learning
by the parents while growing up and or role models

—“Feeling good about yourself” – Pro social behaviour and mood
Evidence supports the notion that positive mood facilitates individual acts of charity or helping, while bad moods impede such behaviour

—“Other people’s shoes” – Pro social behaviour and empathy
Empathy = a vicarious emotional response ( a feeling) elicited by and congruent with the perceived emotional state of another person


Other Factors That Influence ProSocial
Altruism is expressed differently between individualistic and collectivistic societies
Personality Variables
• Appears to be personality differences in terms of pro social behaviour
• subjects who help have been found to be more socially oriented and more internal in terms of locus-of-control than subjects who do not help
• some have argued that there is an “altruistic personality” which is associated with higher internalized standards of justice and responsibility and greater empathy, self-control, and integrity

Gender Differences
• Appear to be differences in empathy between genders
• women have been found to experience more vicarious affective responses than men,
• perhaps because men have traditionally been trained to suppress emotional displays, we might expect women to be more empathic
• However, empirical studies conducted on gender differences are mixed

Effects of Religion
• Research suggests that while individuals who believe that helping others is a religious duty are more likely to volunteer help,
• simply being “religious” in itself does not correlate well with helping behaviour or compassion for those in need

Rural - Urban differences
• Overall, people living in urban environments are less likely to help than those in rural communities
• urban persons cannot help everyone
• intensity of urban stimuli (e.g. noise)
• greater diversity in urban environments (i.e. less likely to help people in unfamiliar groups)

• The urban setting is more crowded than the rural, which means the people living there may think that helping someone is not their responsibility but that of others.

The gentleman siting in the sidewalk is clearly in pain, however, everyone walking by has ear plugs in and cannot hear him crying for help. The ear plugs are symbolizing how people "choose" not to hear the man calling for help because it doesn't concern them. The girl is knocked down making her on the same level as the man on the floor, she now sees him calling for helping rushing over to him. She only went over there because she was knocked down to his desperate level. People now start to notice because people will notice a girl more than they will a boy. Once everyone starts to notice their era plugs start falling out to represent this.

Bystander Intervention:
1) The bystander must notice that something is happening

2) The bystander must interpret the situation as an emergency

3) The bystander must decide whether or not he or she has a responsibility to intervene

4) The bystander must decide in what way he or she can best be of assistance

5) The bystander must choose how best to carry out this course of action

Cooperation and Competitiontogether.jpg
In any social relationship, part of us wants to co-operate with others in a collective endeavour and part of us wants to rely on ourself. Cooperation and competition are closely linked to power, aggression, and games.
While healthy competition can help to develop leadership, self-reliance, a strong work ethic, and perseverance, so can co-operative behaviours. Cooperation and competition do not necessarily have to be adversarial concepts. Cooperation with others can, in fact, be advantageous in a competitive business market or sporting event.

Quotations such as the following promote cooperation.
Two are better than one because they have a good reward for their toil. For if they fail, one will lift up his fellow, but woe to him who is alone when he falls and has not another to lift him up. Again, if two lie together, they are warm; but how can one be warm alone? Ecclesiastes 4:9-12

We together can do what I alone cannot.

They want to see you do good, but never better then them. Remember that.

Competition is useful up to a certain point. Cooperation begins when competition ends.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
On the other hand, quotations such as the following promote the rewards of competitive behaviour.
Winning isn't everything, its the only thing.
Vince Lombardi

To the victor belong the spoils.
William Learned Marc

The second foundation for pro-social behavior is a belief in the principle of equity. Equity is a basic human value related to fairness and justice.
Various issues of equity exist in society. Some of these issues are listed below.
• gender equity
• cultural/ethnic equity
• racial equity
• physical equity (disabilities and handicaps)
• educational equity
• employment equity
Equity Theory focuses upon a person’s perceptions of fairness with respect to a relationship. During a social exchange, an individual assesses the ratio of what is output from the relationship to what is input in the relationship, and also the ratio of what the other person in the relationship outputs from the relationship to what is input into the relationship.

Men who have been pulled away from their family by their work sometimes try to even the scales with expensive holidays. This does not work well as they are trying to trade (short-term value) money for (long-term value) emotion.


Leadership LEADS.jpg
We must become the change we want to see.- Mahatma Gandhi
Pro-social individuals lead by example. Leadership is both an art and a science. On the artistic side, it includes listening, observing, motivating, perceiving, ethics, morality, sensitivity, and discipline. From the science perspective, leadership involves skills in goal setting, planning, organizing, delegating, and communicating.
Overriding all these characteristics and skills is the ability to motivate by example. Some examples of pro-social individuals who led by example and became heroes are Terry Fox, Mother Theresa, and Ghandi.

Types of leadership styles
Autocratic Leadership
Autocratic leadership is an extreme form of transactional leadership, where the leader has absolute power over his or her employees or team. Employees and team members have little opportunity for making suggestions, even if these would be in the team or organization's interest. Most people tend to resent being treated like this. Because of this, autocratic leadership usually leads to high levels of absenteeism and staff turnover. For some routine and unskilled jobs, the style can remain effective where the advantages of control outweigh the disadvantages.

Democratic Leadership or Participative Leadership
Although a democratic leader will make the final decision, he or she invites other members of the team to contribute to the decision-making process. This not only increases job satisfaction by involving employees or team members in what's going on, but it also helps to develop people's skills. Employees and team members feel in control of their own destiny, such as the promotion they desire, and so are motivated to work. Hard by more than just a financial reward. As participation takes time, this approach can take more time, but often the end result is better. The approach can be most suitable where team working is essential, and quality is more important than speed to market or productivity.

Laissez-faire Leadership
This French phrase means "leave it be" and is used to describe a leader who leaves his or her colleagues to get on with their work. It can be effective if the leader monitors what is being achieved and communicates this back to his or her team regularly. Most often, laissez-faire leadership works for teams in which the individuals are very experienced and skilled self-starters. Unfortunately, it can also refer to situations where managers are not exerting sufficient control.

Bureaucratic Leadership
Bureaucratic leaders work "by the book", ensuring that their staff follow procedures exactly. This is a very appropriate style for work involving serious safety risks (such as working with machinery, with toxic substances or at heights) or where large sums of money are involved (such as cash handling)

Agentic Leadership
derives from the term Agency. This leadership style is generally found in the business field by a person who is in control of subordinates. This person demonstrates assertiveness, competitiveness, independence, courageousness, and is masterful in achieving their task at hand.

Top leaders...
  1. Are Visionary
    Top leaders have a very clear understanding of where the organization is going and a clear strategy for getting there.
  2. Communicate Really Well
    Great leaders ensure that their message gets across to all in the organization - clearly.
  3. Are 'People' people
    Having a love for people helps these top performing leaders build relationships and develop wonderful team spirit.
  4. Let Go of the 'Doing'
    Great leaders do just that - lead. They let their people get on with the doing - and encourage them.
  5. Understand Their Business
    Not only are they visionary and strategically sound, but the 'top dog' leaders truly understand their business, inside and out, good and bad, and firmly move it on - they make the difference.
  6. Are Models
    They lead from the front and have the values of the organization and their people. They 'do what it says on the tin".
  7. Build Rapport Quickly
    Excellent leaders have a way of building rapport instantly, through what they say, how they look and especially how well they listen and value the other person.
  8. Have Charisma
    ...and as well as an ability to create rapport, and they communicate well, there is something else - they have a personal style which oozes that extra something - they have great charisma!
  9. Are Very Determined
    Whilst having all those fabulous people skills, truly great leaders go that extra mile - they are determined to follow-through to achieve their goals and vision. They are totally ruthless - and in a people-friendly way.
  10. Are Passionate
    Great leaders bring an immense energy to the task in hand - whether it be a car boot sale or a battle at war. This one element distinguishes them most.

Social Justice

Justice is defined as "a concern for peace and genuine respect for people."; therefore Social Justice is the belief that all people should be treated fairly, with just as much opportunity and privileges in society, no matter their background (ethnicity, education, etc.).
Empathy is a major part of social justice; in order to see the need for equity and equality a person must be able to put themselves into another's shoes and see why an issue is important.

Some issues Social Justice encompasses:
-Same Sex Marriage
-Gun Laws/Rights
-Animal Rights
-Drug Use/Abuse
-Political Issues
-Video Games (Are they possibly harmful?)

Social Justice is reliant on three things:
-Equity: The measuring of the input and output given and gained by both parties.
-Equality: Treating everyone equal no matter their contributions.
-Need: The giving to those who are most in need of it.

"If somebody has cancer, they're not embarrassed to have cancer. They know it's not their fault. But, if someone says they're depressed, they assume people are going to look at them like they have three heads. Hopefully, this is helping to start a conversation."
Jared Padalecki (Actor, Mental Health Activist)

In many ways social justice is the thing that ties pro-social Interaction and leadership together; social justice relies on many of the same things pro-social does such as equity and the belief held in cooperation to create a successful society but it also includes leadership. Many of the most prominent social justice warriors are leaders, whether they're actors who lead the public with their words or political leaders- such as Theodore Roosevelt- and if people want to make a real change in the way people are treated they must be leaders in their own right to challenge the norm.